Sagetex and Graph Theory


I've added some information to the Graph Theory, Sage, LaTeX page. For more complicated graphs, typesetting the placement of each individual vertex is too time consuming. Sage can help us out. Some of the important commands are located here. Many of the named graphs are posted here. SageTeX lets you use the power of Sage in both creating the graph and calculating the various parameters you want. You can find more details posted on that page along with working code to get you started.

Here are some stories that caught my eye over the last week:

  •, CBS 6, reports "The mother of a Virginia middle school student said she was angry, frustrated, and mad after her son was handcuffed, suspended from school, and charged with stealing a 65-cent carton of milk from the cafeteria. As it turned out, Shamise Turk's son Ryan was on the school's free lunch program and the milk -- was free.....Police said the larceny charge was because Ryan tried to "conceal" the milk, a claim Ryan's mother denied. The school spokesperson said Ryan was suspended for theft, being disrespectful and using his cell phone in school."
  • Money.CNN says, "For years, America's college campuses swelled with more and more students. But enrollment peaked in 2010 at just over 21 million students. Attendance has dropped every year since....The two types of colleges with the biggest declines in enrollment are: community colleges and for-profit universities. Those schools draw heavily from low-income and minority households."
  • checks in with today's most whiny generation at Oberlin, which was highlighted in a recent The New Yorker issue. "...activist students not only wanted to abolish all grades below a 'C,' they also thought faculty members should proactively offer them alternatives to taking a written, in-class midterm exam." The New Yorker had a longer piece which went into more detail "For years, a campus café and performance space called the Cat in the Cream had a music-themed mural, painted by an alumnus, that celebrated multiculturalism: it featured a turbanned snake charmer, a black man playing a saxophone, and so on. Students recently raised concerns that the mural was exoticizing. “We ended up putting drywall over it, and painting over that,” Robert Bonfiglio, who had been the chair of the Student Union Board, told me. “They were saying, ‘Students are being harmed. Just do something now.’ ” But if individuals’ feelings were grounds to efface art work, he reasoned, every piece of art at Oberlin would be in constant danger of being covered up, or worse—a practice with uncomfortable antecedents. “The fear in class isn’t getting something wrong but having your voice rejected,” he said. “People are so amazed that other people could have a different opinion from them that they don’t want to hear it.”...Copeland has taught at Oberlin since the nineteen-seventies. He was puzzled by many things about today’s students—“They do not make eye contact! They do not look into your motherfucking eyes!”—but what galled him most was their apparent eagerness to go over their professors’ heads. In the late fall of 2014, during rehearsals for a play he was coördinating, he spoke sharply to a student: a misfire not of language, he says, but of tone. The student ran out of the room. Copeland says that he wanted to smooth ruffled feathers and keep the production on track, so he agreed to meet with the student and his department chair. At the meeting, the student asked that he leave the room, and she and the department head spoke alone for about half an hour.Later, the dean of arts and sciences asked to meet with him. He reported complaints that Copeland had created “a hostile and unsafe learning environment,” and that he had “verbally berated” a student—but said that it must be kept confidential which student or incidents were concerned. Then the dean asked Copeland to sign a document acknowledging that a complaint had been lodged against him....He gave the dean a list of students he thought could confirm that he hadn’t “berated” anyone. He says the list was brushed aside: “They said, ‘What matters is that the student felt unsafe.’ ” Then he was told that, because gender could have been a factor, the issue was being investigated as a possible Title IX violation. That inquiry was later dropped; by then, Copeland had hired a lawyer. In September, 2015, the original inquiry was still going on, and Copeland said that the dean told him that if he wouldn’t meet without his lawyer he would be brought before the Professional Conduct Review Committee. Copeland and his lawyer welcomed that idea: the committee process would bring some daylight. They never heard back."
  • Science Daily with a piece on titled "40-year math mystery and four generations of figuring" which "So, what is the Kelmans-Seymour Conjecture, anyway? Its name comes from Paul Seymour from Princeton University, who came up with the notion in 1977. Then another mathematician named Alexander Kelmans, arrived at the same conjecture in 1979. And though the Georgia Tech proof fills some 120 pages of math reasoning, the conjecture itself is only one short sentence: If a graph G is 5-connected and non-planar, then G has a TK5."
  • Oregonlive reports "Portland Superintendent Carole Smith apologized Friday for allowing students and teachers at two schools to continue to drink tainted water after tests showed unsafe levels of lead...At Rose City Park, that meant students were free to drink lead-laced water for eight school days after district officials knew about the toxic results."
  • ZeroHedge reports "Federal investigators revealed another blow to Detroit Public Schools this week. Meet Carolyn StarkeyDarden - the system’s former grant-development director - who has just been charged on suspicion of obtaining nearly $1.3 million by lying about children’s tutoring services....Carolyn Starkey Darden set up a company and allegedly ran a scheme between 2005 and 2012 in which she submitted fake invoices for tutoring services that were never provided to students, according to charges filed by the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Michigan’s Eastern District." This is so typical of the public school system where huge amounts of money can be easily skimmed by the corrupt. Because it's almost never about the kids.
  • RT on the 8 year old who brought a loaded gun to class. "It is unclear to whom the gun belonged and what made the boy bring it to school. The NYPD said there were no arrests made so far. Authorities believe that the boy might have had a dispute with another child, and they suspect his teenage brother had something to do with this incident, WABC reported....This is the sixth time authorities in New York confiscated a firearm inside a city school since March. In one case, a 14-year-old boy brought a loaded 9-millimeter gun to Middle School 61. "
  • The Third Shakmir tournament is underway with chess superstars Caruana, Kajarkin, Radjabov, Hou Yifan and more. The games can be followed live here.

Sage Interact: Generate Discrete Data


In an earlier post I designed a Sage Interact to generate data for continuous distributions. This week I've added a Sage Interact to generate data for discrete distributions. A screenshot of the Interact is shown above. To use the Sage Interact, copy the code posted on the Python/Sage page and paste it into any Sage Cell Server. Press "Evaluate" to start the interact. Pick the distribution you want to generate data for, adjust the parameters and the Interact will create your data as well as calculate standard statistics for the data. This is a quick way to generate examples for quizzes, tests, and lessons.

Here are some stories that caught my eye in the last week:

  • has a surprising piece on "Connecticut’s Shame: In One of America’s Richest Counties, a High School Has Been Failing for 50 Years". The school is so bad there isn't really any way to get worse "Even to the jaded, Bassick’s achievement statistics are disturbing. Last year, only 15 percent of students tested proficient in language arts on the new Common Core-aligned state tests. The percentage of students who met that benchmark in math? Zero." Good thing they have certified teachers getting the most out of them.
  • Segregation--it wasn't that long ago. Actually, it's still going on. RT reports, "A northwest Mississippi school district has been ordered by a federal district court to "consolidate its secondary schools" that have long been separated along racial lines some six decades after the US Supreme Court ordered school desegregation.....This decision serves as a reminder to districts that delaying desegregation obligations is both unacceptable and unconstitutional,” said Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Vanita Gupta, head of the DOJ's Civil Rights Division. " In what way was the 50 year delay shown to be unacceptable?
  • Sputnik news notes that "A former elementary school paraprofessional in the Atlanta area must report to jail by 6:00 on Friday evening after being charged with reckless endangerment for hanging a five-year-old student by his belt from a classroom blackboard."
  • closes the chapter on a teacher who used the N-word in class. "Andrea Quenette, the University of Kansas communications professor subjected to protests and a formal investigation after offending her liberal students, was cleared of wrongdoing. But she is still ultimately out of a job."
  • EAGnews with a horrific tale of student animal behavior that was impossible to imagine decades ago. "South Fort Myers High School officials believe as many as 25 boys had “inappropriate activity” with a 15-year-old female student inside of a bathroom on campus Tuesday. Students told NBC 2 the incident occurred in a girl’s bathroom after classes ended and involved the school’s football team." The NBC 2 link has a video and there's another link here with a little more depth, "While she would not pinpoint why the different students were on campus after hours, she said South Fort Myers students involved in extracurricular activities — athletics or otherwise — participate in a study hall from 1:47 to 2:30 p.m. This is roughly the time frame for when the bathroom activities took place, Chandler said." So about 45 minutes in which we have dozens of students unaccounted for and no adult apparently around the area to see or hear what was happening.
  • The Greeley Tribune on the decline of teachers in Colorado. "Since 2010, UNC has watched enrollment in its teacher preparation programs plummet from a high of nearly 4,000 in 2011 to just 2,900 last year. The state is expected to graduate only 2,000 next year, and it needs twice that amount, education officials say...There are states that are worse off than Colorado (Oklahoma, California). There are states that are doing better (Connecticut). But every state has seen its list of needs increase as the number of people pursuing teaching as a career has decreased." The school system is run by many people who aren't up to the challenge but there is little consequence for mismanagement and poor quality. Take the Connecticut situation above: what will be the consequence for poor performance? Will the school close for having 0% proficiency in math? How did the school get to a 0% proficiency rating with "professionals" running the school? Do teachers still get pay increases (above the rate of industry) for such an awful showing? Money will keep coming in from taxes, and the system will continue on. When there's no consequence for failure, expect more of it.

Coin Tossing references

The subject of coin tossing keeps coming up, no doubt because it is something the average person can relate to--no abstruse definitions like with limits (in Calculus). And that forces me to go back and find references for some of the basic points in the arguments that should be known but aren't. I've decided it's about time to accumulate the basic points and along with references:

The probability of flipping heads on a coin is not 1/2. The assumption that flipping heads on a coin is 1/2 is a mathematical model and not reality which is akin to using 3.14 for pi. Coin tossing is a deterministic process in physics as demonstrated by a coin tossing machine, "To make his point, Diaconis commissioned a team of Harvard technicians to build a mechanical coin tosser -- a 3-pound, 15-inch-wide contraption that, when bolted to a table, launches a coin into the air such that it lands the same way every single time. Diaconis himself has trained his thumb to flip a coin and make it come up heads 10 out of 10 times. But what he really wanted to know was whether unrehearsed tosses -- by ordinary folk who flip coins with unpredictable speeds and heights and catch them at different angles -- would show that the outcome of the act was, in fact, random." Persi Diaconis, Susan Holmes, and Richard Montgomery are authors of the article "Dyanmical Bias in the Coin Toss" (.pdf). There is a Numberphile video with Diaconis (about 8 minutes) that gives a brief overview and there is a YouTube lecture by Diaconis (about 55 minutes) with more detail. One of the main assumptions is that you start the coiin with the heads side up is

Mathematician William Feller was a well known expert in probability who wrote a classic book An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications in which you can find (by click on "Look Inside") the following quote on page 19: "As a matter of fact, whenever refined statistical measures have been used to check on actual coin tossing, the result has invariably been that head and tail are not equally likely. And yet we stick to our model of an "ideal" coin even no good coins exist. We preserve the model not merely for its logical simplicity, but essentially for its usefulness and its applicability.".

The coin flipping model has two assumptions built into it:

  1. There are two outcomes (heads and tails)
  2. The two outcomes are equally likely.

The first assumption isn't always true. The Abstract of paper (by Murray and Teare) mentions the odds of an American nickel landing on its edge is about 1/6000.

The deterministic nature of coin flipping can be found in the article "Heads or tails? It all depends on some key variables" which says:

"But first, here's what the researchers concluded: Using a high-speed camera that photographed people flipping coins, the three researchers determined that a coin is more likely to land facing the same side on which it started. If tails is facing up when the coin is perched on your thumb, it is more likely to land tails up. How much more likely? At least 51 percent of the time, the researchers claim, and possibly as much as 55 percent to 60 percent -- depending on the flipping motion of the individual.In other words, more than random luck is at work."

I've put this post on the Other page for future reference. If you teach probability in school this is a good topic to "go beyond" the basic curriculum. Too many students learn that the probability of flipping heads is 1/2 and not that the probability of flipping heads on a fair coin is 1/2. And the coins around us in the real world aren't fair.

Here are some stories that caught my eye this week:

  • What do you do with your spare time? According to, "A 15-year-old boy believes he has discovered a forgotten Mayan city using satellite photos and Mayan astronomy. William Gadoury, from Quebec, came up with the theory that the Maya civilization chose the location of its towns and cities according to its star constellations. He found Mayan cities lined up exactly with stars in the civilization's major constellations. Studying the star map further, he discovered one city was missing from a constellation of three stars. Using satellite images provided by the Canadian Space Agency and then mapped on to Google Earth, he discovered the city where the third star of the constellation suggested it would be."
  • ZeroHege has an article showing just how deep the economic problems bite, "According to Bloomberg, a new survey by Discover Financial Services found that 48% of parents think their child should pay a portion (if not all) of the cost of attending college, up from 39% four years ago. And just how will potential students pay that portion? Why, student loans of course. 32% of respondents said they would ask the bank for help, while 27% plan to rely on family savings, 4% said they would dip into retirement funds, and 3% even indicated that they may refinance their home to pay for their kids college."
  • USNews has an excellent article on just how badly our schools are letting us down, and there is an economic price. "One in four who enter college immediately after high school graduation must pay college-level prices for high school-level classes....But before you write off inadequate high school preparation as a function of a student's family background or the type of college they attend, know this: Nearly half of first-year remedial students come from middle-class, upper middle-class and wealthy families. Forty percent are enrolled at public and private four-year colleges...We already knew that high schools typically underserve students from low-income families and communities, but apparently they're doing poorly with wealthier students as well. It turns out that all students are susceptible to the leaky K-12-to-college pipeline – no one is immune. This should be a wake-up call for all."
  • Say what? CBS6albany starts an article with, ""Stop for a second and think about the standards that you graduated high school with, it's night and day," said Shenendehowa Central School District Superintendent Dr. Oliver Robinson." and I'm thinking, right! Keep reading some more, though, "Under current state regulations, and in the age of Common Core, there's a real concern among parents about their kids making it to the stage in cap and gown to receive a high school diploma - and it's only getting tougher." Wait, what? The educational system has gotten weaker over the years. Try finding someone under, say, 30 to 35 who can handle decimals, fractions and percents. Whereas taking calculus used to be rare, nowadays "good" math students are taking calculus--and they can't handle fractions. "Parents and educators across the state are expressing worries about the impact on graduation rates. Robinson says data predicts a severe drop."We would go from about 93% graduation rates to barely over 50%, significant," he said...."We'd have a situation where, to be quite frank, districts would not produce graduates," he explained." And THAT is one of the many reasons why the public school system is so messed up. High school is something you have to go through before you go on to a college, enjoy parties, go into debt and come out with a degree that you need to get a job because everybody has a worthless high school degree. Rather than uphold a standard that students who graduate learn math, grammar, spelling, history, etc so that students who graduate are college ready we now have a system where 37% are college ready and "Only 8 percent of U.S. high school graduates complete a curriculum that prepares them well for college and the workplace" all while "The nation's high school graduation rate hit 82 percent in 2013-14, the highest level since states adopted a new uniform way of calculating graduation rates five years ago.". When you make something free, it loses its value. Make students earn a high school degree and some might take it more seriously. College has become the "high school" of 50 years ago except you go into debt and there's still no guarantee you can do basic math when you're finished.

tkz-graph: more options


My confusion over the way to implement graphs in LaTeX prompted an earlier post where I started a Graph Theory, Sage, and LaTeX page. The first post suggested the Normal style for creating a basic graph: it's quick, clean and saves on printer ink. But using tkz-graph and tkz-berge you gives you a lot more control, if you need it. The two packages have enough differences in their approach that I thought a page of templates to serve as a starting point would be useful for me. Graph theory and discrete math, unfortunately, don't have much place in the educational curriculum so I've gone a little bit lighter on the details.

As you can see from the screenshot above we can change various aspects of the graph: the vertex color, the text color in the vertex, the color and thickness of the edges and even add labels. You can download the template and experiment with the code yourself.

Here are some stories that caught my eye over the last week:

  • Start with the Detroit teacher strike. Detroit is a poster child for what's wrong with public education. EAGnews has the coverage, "Detroit Federation of Teachers members ditched their students to protest about pay today, despite data that shows they’ve been ineffective at improving the district’s worst-in-the-nation student academic performance....The combined results for students of all grades tested last spring shows a mere 2.9 percent met basic proficiency standards for science, 7.9 percent reached that threshold for math, 8.1 were proficient in Social Studies, and 14.6 met standards in English Language Arts." It's difficult to argue that teachers are professionals when their results are this bad.
  • KOTAnews reports that Wyoming is dropping out of common core. Red Alert News claims that North Dakota is the 9th state to reject Common Core. The Salt Lake Tribune says "On Wednesday afternoon, Republican gubernatorial candidate Jonathan Johnson called for the end of SAGE testing in Utah schools.Not to be outdone, Gov. Gary Herbert issued his own call hours later, urging the state school board to abandon both SAGE and Utah's statewide education standards for math and English."Today I am asking the State Board of Education to consider implementing uniquely Utah standards," Herbert said in a letter to the board, "moving beyond the Common Core to a system that is tailored specifically to the needs of our state."".
  • Be careful about doing math in a public place, especially if you seem like a foreigner. on "A woman sitting next to an Ivy League economist told flight crew she had security concerns about the man, after seeing him write in a foreign script. It turned out to be a differential equation.". How stupid have are we?!?
  • The Washington Post has a fascinating article on "Education activists are increasingly becoming concerned about the computer grading of written portions of new Common Core tests....The standard PARCC contract indicates that this year, Pearson would score two-thirds of the students’ writing responses by computers, with only 10 percent of these rechecked by a human being.  In 2017, the contract said, all of PARCC writing samples were to be scored by machine with only 10 percent rechecked by hand...This policy appears to contradict the assurances on the PARCC scoring FAQ page that says,“Writing responses and some mathematics answers that require students to explain their process or their reasoning will be scored by trained people in the first years.”...The Pearson and AIR contracts also promised studies showing the reliability of computer scoring. ...According to Les Perelman, retired director of  a  writing program at MIT and an expert on computer scoring, the PARCC/Pearson study is particularly suspect because its principal authors were the lead developers for the ETS and Pearson scoring programs. Perelman said:  “It is a case of the foxes guarding the hen house.  The people conducting the study have a powerful financial interest in showing that computers can grade papers.”....Indeed, research shows it is easy to game by writing nonsensical long essays with abstruse vocabulary......Unable to analyze meaning, narrative, or argument, computer scoring instead relies on length, grammar, and arcane vocabulary to do assess prose....On April 5, 2016, the same day we sent the letter, Rhode Island Education Commissioner Ken Wagner ...claimed that “the research indicates that the technology can score extended student responses with as much reliability- if not more reliability- than expert trained teacher scores …..”". In an educational system that creates a pathetically weak "standard" of teacher certification that has little to do with quality resulting in most students being unprepared for college even though graduation rates are rising, computer scoring makes perfect sense. Design an algorithm that can be programmed to deliver whatever percentage of good scores you want. It's not really about education, it's who gets the dollars and how to deliver product for as little money as possible.
  • It's not really math, so perhaps we shouldn't be too surprised how badly statistics is doing in predicting the elections. ZeroHedge reports, "How poor have the election forecasters been this year?  It is a topic many are discussing given the large number of upsets we've had during the Primaries.  For example, statistician Nate Silver (who started the campaign season proclaiming Trump had <2% chance of being nominated) by March 1 predicted with 94% probability that Trump would win Alaska (he lost). Silver then predicted on March 8 with >99% probability that Clinton would win Michigan (she lost).  Silver again predicted on May 3 with 90% probability that Clinton would win Indiana (she lost).  But there is another issue besides being wrong, which is how much model flip-flopping is occurring just up to these elections. The most proximate example is Silver stating this past Sunday that Cruz had a 65% chance to win Indiana; the next day (Monday, the eve of the election) and with little new data, he "adjusts" that to Trump having a 69% chance to win!  That's horrible! ". Low level math has you churn out answers supported by work for people to check. In statistics you show your data (which may have been massaged or manipulated) and argue your case. The essence of math is proof, and the nontheoretical statistics we encounter most every day has a high BS content. Statisticians like to claim how good it is "...if it's done right", meaning their way. But when the integrity of the data itself isn't open for inspection, statistics is open to widespread abuse in a way that math can't be.
  • The Hechinger Report addresses the high math failure rates at universities. "A few years ago, administrators at San Diego State noticed high “D-F-W” (grades D and F, and withdraw) rates — 35 to 50 percent — for math courses, according to Michael O’Sullivan, chair of the math and statistics department. In 2014, the newly elected O’Sullivan, along with frustrated faculty, decided to overhaul the program. ....The changes at San Diego State and in other colleges’ math classes are similar to components of the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice...As of this year, San Diego State has implemented all seven pieces, said Michael O’Sullivan. It is too soon to know long-term results, of course, but for now the professors are happy that this semester’s Calculus II midterm grades increased by five to eight percent compared to previous years, according to Ricardo Carretero, professor of applied mathematics."
  • Your funny money is no good here. ABC13 reports, "Now 14, Daneisha was hoping to eat that day's lunch of chicken tenders with her classmates using a $2 bill given to her by her grandmother when she was stopped by the long arm of the law. "I went to the lunch line and they said my $2 bill was fake," Danesiah told Ted Oberg Investigates. "They gave it to the police. Then they sent me to the police office. A police officer said I could be in big trouble."Not just big trouble. Third-degree felony trouble. And that's just one of eight counterfeiting charges investigated against high- and middle-school students at Fort Bend ISD since the 2013-2014 school year....Then the Fort Bend ISD police investigated the $2 bill with the vigor of an episode of Dragnet, even though at that school 82-percent of kids are poor enough to get free or reduced price lunch.The alleged theft of $2 worth of chicken tenders led a campus the convenience store that gave grandma the $2 bill...... The $2 bill wasn't a fake at all. It was real....The bill so old, dating back to 1953, the school's counterfeit pen didn't work on it...."He brought me my two dollar bill back," Joseph said. He didn't apologize. He should have and the school should have because they pulled Danesiah out of lunch and she didn't eat lunch that day because they took her money.""

SageTeX: First Derivative Test


This week I've added another problem to the SageTeX: Derivatives page. The screenshot is above. Given a polynomial students need to create a table to show when the function is increasing or decreasing. Then they have to determine the local extrema.

Filling out the table makes use of Sage's ability to calculate derivatives. Here's a small snippet of the code. Note the indentation has been lost.

if df(0)>0:
a13 = '+'
a14 = "increasing"
a13 = '-'
a14 = "decreasing"

Depending on whether the derivative is positive or negative we can fill out the chart. And the same logical reasoning that allows you to fill out the chart by hand is the same logical flow that the Python code goes through--but without the errors we humans are prone to make. And of course, recompiling can generate lots and lots of problems with an answer key, faster and more accurately than any human could.

Here are some stories that caught my eye this week:

  • ZeroHedge has the latest on the Chicago Pension Scandal, "Take the example of two union lobbyists who substitute taught for one-day in the public schools and then started collecting over $1 million of lifetime public ‘teacher’ pension payout – despite a state law expressly designed to stop them. And now take all the other 7,499 educators. The retirees in question paid so little into their own retirement (breaking even on their cost basis within the first 20 months of retirement) that taxpayers now face a $900 million bill just to keep the pension payments flowing!...The fraud appears to be focused on the city of Chicago. Some examples:
    • Northern Illinois school districts are driving the majority of $100,000 pensions. In fact, 6,706 pensions for over $800 million in annual payouts were conferred by districts in the Chicago metropolitan suburban area. Only 793 six-figure pensions totaling $95 million in annual payouts were conferred by school districts in the rest of the state. Yet, income-taxpayers across the whole state guarantee the retirement annuities for everyone.
    • The Top 100 All-Time pensions: #1 $302,991 (Lawrence Wyllie at Lincoln-Way CHSD) to #100 $200,812  (Michael Radakovic at Aurora East USD 131). Read the Top 500 All-Time IL teacher pension list.
    • The Top 5 school districts conferring six-figure pensions are Palatine TWP HSD 211, Palatine (449); Township HSD 214, Arlington Heights (419); Consolidated HSD 230, Orland Park (196); Northfield TWP HSD 225, Glenview (188); Maine TWP HSD 207, Park Ridge (180)."
  • You thought hoped her 15 minutes of fame were over. But it isn't--she's baaaack! Melissa Click was interviewed, shamefully enough, by the Chronicle of Higher Education. dissects it all: "More:

    While Ms. Click acknowledges that she was certainly frustrated that day, she says she was simply trying to protect the black student protesters. Everything she has come to stand for since the video came out—intolerance, anger, mouthiness, and dismissiveness—is exactly the opposite of who she says she really is. Focusing on her behavior, she says, is a way to take attention away from the demands of Concerned Student 1950, the group of protesters. 

    "I’m not a superhero," Ms. Click says. "I wasn’t in charge." But she’s taken the fall. "When it got out of control," she says, "I was the one held accountable." 

    And not by accident. Click was held accountable because she committed assault. If her behavior is drawing attention away from the student activists, that's entirely her own fault. 

    The Chronicle story also includes some biographical details that uncritically accept Click's I-am-a-hero narrative....Is this the profile of a woman who has overcome great adversity, or the profile of an intolerant ideologue firmly convinced of her own greatness?.....But she doesn't deserve sainthood, either. She did a very bad thing, and her revisionist attempts to explain away her criminal behavior should be rejected. Assault is wrong, even if the person committing it has a minor in women's studies."

  • An article in the Tennessean says, "Police handcuffed multiple students, ages 6 to 11, at a public elementary school in Murfreesboro on Friday, inspiring public outcry and adding fuel to already heightened tensions between law enforcement and communities of color nationwide.The arrests at Hobgood Elementary School occurred after the students were accused of not stopping a fight that happened several days earlier off campus. ....Murfreesboro police didn't say what state law the kids violated, but parents of several of the arrested children say the kids were charged with "criminal responsibility for conduct of another," which according to Tennessee criminal offense code includes incidents when a "person fails to make a reasonable effort to prevent" an offense."
  • NPR reports on the latest report card of public high schools, "This tiny downtick was statistically significant in mathematics, but not for the reading test....NAEP scores are comparable across decades — back to 2005 for math and all the way back to 1993 for reading....According to research by Ho and others, just under 40 percent of students score at college and career ready levels on NAEP....One is that in 2015 the nationwide high school graduation rate was 82 percent, not 40 percent. That leaves a potentially large group of kids who got diplomas but who weren't ready to succeed in college. Who is right: their high schools or NAEP?
    ...On the other hand, he says, "the less-than-charitable view would be that graduation is just a lower standard than college readiness. If you get right down to it, the reading and math required by NAEP, the ACT, the SAT, colleges and careers is much greater than what high schools are saying is sufficient." High schools with dumbed down standards to increase graduation? Shocking!
  • Most of us aren't particularly excellent at what we do, but imagine if we could compete against high school students. We'd look really good then. Vice News continues "A few weeks ago, Jonathan Nicola was the star player on his high school basketball team, with a coach who believed he had a shot at going pro. But now that it's come out that the 17-year-old is actually a 29-year-old man, his ambitions — whatever they may have been — have been put on hold, and he's begging the Canadian government to send him back home to South Sudan."
  • The Huffington Post looks at standardized testing, "Turns out, academic conformity sells, and business is booming: As of 2011, Gaston Caperton, the president of the College Board,nonprofit owner of SAT, was paid $1.3 million. Richard Ferguson, formerexecutive officer of ACT Inc., made roughly $1.1 million. Meanwhile, The National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy at Boston College reported that the value of the standardized testing market was anywhere between $400 million and $700 million........Standardized testing isn’t just about every student meeting the same standards. It is about every student, school, and administrator paying for the same product." So, so true. And public education means there companies have less people to persuade. Give an incentive for those at the top and a lot of money flows to the company. A good article which is worth reading very carefully.
  • Chessbase reports on Fabiano Caruana winning the US Chess Championship. The US Women's Chess Championship was won by Nazi Paikizde after the favorite to win, Irina Krush, had an uncharacteristically bad tournament and the tournament leader, Tatev Abrahamyan, lost the final round. Some very ugly chess by the women but fighting chess that kept me riveted as never knew who would make the final mistake to lose. The tournament was followed by the Ultimate Blitz championship which featured Kasparov, Nakamura, So, and Caruana. Nakamura won, Kasparov was only .5 points behind but the highlight was a So-Kasparov brilliancy. The Chessbase report quotes Yasser Seirawan as saying "Wesley's game against Kasparov will go down in history as one of the greatest blitz games ever played. I will remember that game for the rest of my life." and Kasparov said "It reminded me of games Morphy played against amateurs.". It's that brilliant. Make sure you check out the game at the Chessbase link.
  • It looked like Carlsen was going to easily win the Altibox Norway Chess tounament. A loss in the penultimate round kept the issue in doubt but winning the final round gave Carlsen first place. Chessbase has the story here.
  • The Atlantic looks at "Why would a Teacher Cheat?" I can think of some reasons but back to the article, "The prevalence of test-score manipulation in the United States is well-documented. In fact, with the help of the same researchers who authored the Regents Exams study, The Wall Street Journal in 2011 revealed a significant spike in the number of exams in all the main subjects with scores of 65 points out of 100—the minimum passing grade....There’s good evidence that score manipulation does harm kids, particularly when teachers are falsifying their responses outright for the sake of avoiding sanctions. But there’s also good evidence to suggest that score inflation—teachers grading a bit more leniently, often because they think the student underperformed on the exam—may have positive effects as well. While inflating an individual student’s test score doesn’t magically inject her with more knowledge, the two aforementioned studies indicate it significantly boosts her odds of overcoming an obstacle increasingly critical to future success: high-school graduation." WTF? Schools cheat but hey that may be a good thing because kids graduate. Isn't it obvious that increasing inflating a students grade would increase the chance of their graduating? And, news flash, it's probably likely that some of the inflation is done precisely to get that failing senior out of the school system. But when about 40% of the graduating classes are college ready perhaps high school graduate as an indicator of future success will lose its value as a high school degree is no longer proof that you can read and write. This is an absurd article on a lot of levels. And the nonsense continues, "Indeed, a growing body of international research suggests that the prospect of a raise—or the threat of sanctions—seldom induces teachers to fudge their students’ test scores. Altruistic motivations appear to be at play." And I've got a bridge in Brooklyn to sell you. The school system is so broken and most of the people in charge aren't interested in fixing it.
  • Yet another Common Core defector wanna-be: Michigan. Truth in American Education says, "Michigan’s Common Core Repeal Bill just made it over a a major hurdle. The Senate Education Committee voted to pass SB 826, a bill that would repeal Common Core and replace them with Massachusetts pre-Common Core standards."